By Marek Perkowski

Portland State University
College of Engineering and Computer Science
ECE 573 Design of Sequential Circuits.
Course Schedule, Winter 2006
Updated March 3, 2006

This is a list of lectures that were taught in Winter 2006 and are required for exams. All slides are updated and upgraded.


    Role of sequential machines in the entire design process.
    1. Design Automation.
    2. Review of Finite State Machines.
    Basic concepts of Sequential State Machine Theory. Non-deterministic and deterministic automata.
    1. Set Theory and Introduction to State Machine Theory.
    2. Equivalence. Nondeterministic and Deterministic Finite Automata.


    Regular Languages versus automata. Complete design procedure starting from regular expressions.
    1. Regular Languages and Regular Expressions.
    2. Deterministic and Nondeterministic Finite Automata.
    3. Regular Expressions.
    4. Behavoral Equivalence. Mealy and Moore Automata.
    5. Morphisms of Machines. Homomorphisms, epimosphisms, isomorphisms.


    Minimization, state assignment and realization of Finite State Machines.
    1. Introduction to Minimization of Finite State Machines. Completely Specified Machines.
    2. Minimization of FSMs.
    3. Advanced FSM minization and assignment.
    4. FSM State Encoding.


    State Assignment of FSMs. Advanced methods and partition theory.
    1. Rule based state assignment.
    2. State assignment using-multiline and partitions.
    3. Example of state assignment using rules.
    4. Encoding based on partitions.
    1. Midterm 1.


    Decomposition of Finite State Machines. Serial and Parallel Decomposition. Links to Encoding.
    1. Introduction to FSM Decomposition.
    2. Advanced FSM Decomposition Theory.
    Behavior, experiments, testing, and verification of FSMs.
    1. Introduction to experiments with Finite Automata.
    2. Examples of homing and synchronizing experiments.


    Cellular Automata.
    1. Introduction to Cellular Automata and Artificial Life.
    2. Cellular Logic Illustrations.
    3. Quantum Dot Cellular Automata.
    4. Cellular Morphogenesis.
    Cellular Automata Project.
    1. Some project information on Cellular Automata.


    Cellular Automata in Physics. Reversible Cellular Automata. Simulations in biology and social life.
    1. Cellular Automata models in Engineering.
    2. Reversible Cellular Automata.
    3. Physical Reversible Models of Cellular Automata.


    Reversible Cellular Automata. Artificial Life. Simulations in biology and social life.
    1. Part 2 of Physical Reversible Models of Cellular Automata.
    2. Part 3 of Physical Reversible Models of Cellular Automata.
    3. Artificial Life.
    4. Cellular Automata Model for Fish and Shark.


    Asynchronous Automata.
    1. Introduction to asynchronous Automata"
    2. Realization of asynchronous automata.


    Asynchronous Automata. Asynchronous Systems.
    1. Metastability.
    2. Self-timed asynchronous machines.
    3. Design of self-synchronized state machines.
    MIDTERM 2.
    1. Midterm 2 on the last day of class. It will cover asynchronous machines, experiments and decomposition.


  1. Presentations of projects.
  2. Additional midterm exams 1 and 2 (you can improve your grade, but for not as many points as writing it right the first time).
  3. Return complete report on project on March 25. Final date.
    Design of FSM from Flowcharts and similar techniques.
  1. Marek Perkowski et al. Automatic Design of Finite State Machines with Electrically Programmable Devices. Paper in PDF.

    This is a description of using invariants in FSM design. Also it includes simple explanation of Mealy-Moore and Moore-Mealy convertions.
  2. FSM implementation in VHDL. PPT slides.

  3. Marek Perkowski. Symbolic Analysis of Sequential and Parallel Program Schemata in the Digital Design Automation System. Paper in PDF.

  4. Ciesielski. RTL design. Slides in PDF.

  5. Slides in PDF. Control logic design by Ciesielski.

  6. Slides in PDF on Design using flow-charts.

  7. Slides in PDF from Mano about basic design on RTL level using flowcharts.

  8. Addition and Subtraction with Signed-Magnitude Data. PPT slides from Mano. Use of flowcharts.

  9. Davis. State Machine Design methods. Flowcharts. Slides in PDF>

  10. Sequencing and Control. Slides in PPT. Fundamental.

  11. Slides in PPT. Instructions in microprocessor. Addressing modes.

  12. Slides in PDF in control unit design using flowchart and HDL.

  13. Lectures on Assembly Language for Intel Based computers. FSM. While Operator. Flow-charts. Slides in PPT.

  14. Slides in PDF> Special Topics in Advanced Digital System Design. Boards and tools.

  15. Mano Chapter 8. Slides in PPT about flow-charting and control design.

  16. Slides in PPT about Multi-cycle control.

  17. Lecture on DSP processor fundamentals. PDF format.

  18. Timing of FSM and FFs. Slides in Postscript.

  19. Mano. Slides in PDF on assembly leved processor design.

  20. Slides in PDF on FSM design.

    Design of fuzzy logic controllers.
  1. PDF slides. Wang and Kazmierski. VHDL-AMS based genetic optimization of a fuzzy logic controller for automotive active suspension system.

    Design of large controllers and spectral methods.
  1. Paper in PDF. The hardware implementation of real-time SAR signal processor.

  2. Contents of DSP book. PDF.

  3. Embedded System architectures paper in Postscript.

  4. Shi. Ph.thesis in PDF. Floating-point to fixed-point conversion.

  5. Westerlund. Comparison of Synthesizable Processor Cores. M.S. Thesis in PDF.

  6. Using Delayed Addition Techniques to Accelerate Integer and Floating-Point Calculations in Configurable Hardwarea. Paper in PDF.

  7. Literature in Word on applications of FFT.

  8. Paper in PDF on Programmable Digital Signal Processor.

  9. Coric. Thesis on Parallel-Beam Backpropagation: an FPGA Implementation Optimized for Medical Imaging. This includes Radon Transform.

  10. M.S. THESIS on Development and Verification of Parametrized Digital Signal Processing Macros for Microelectronic Systems. FFT related. PDF format.

  11. Student Project in PDF. A System on a Chip for Audio Encoding.

  12. M.S. Thesis by Kishore Kotteri in PDF. Optimal Multiplier Less Implementation of the Discrete Wavelet Transform for Image Compression Applications.

  13. MS Thesis Kurt Rogers in PDF. Acceleration and Implementation of a DSP Phase-Based Frequency Estimation Algorithm. Matlab and Simulink to FPGA via Xilinx System Generator.

  14. Slides in PPT on Sharpening Techniques for Sensor Feature Enhancement. Applications of FFT etc. DSP methods.

  15. Thesis in PDF. Orientation Filters for Real-time Computer Vision Problems.

  16. M.S. Thesis by Tyler Moeller in PDF. Field Programmable Gate Arrays for Radar Front-End DSP.

  17. Vector Processors.mht

  18. M.S. Thesis by A. Walters in PDF. A Scaleable FIR Filter Implementation Using 32-bit Floating Point Complex Arithmetic on a FPGA Based Custom Computing Platform.

  19. M.S. Thesis in PDF by Belanovic. Library of Parametrized Hardware Modules for Floating-Point Arithmetic with An Example Application.

  20. Thesis by David Chui on Using FPGA engines in Physics.

  21. Patent by Sharp on FFT processor. PDF document.

  22. V. Arkesh. FPGA Implementation of a Low Power Doppler Invariant BSK Receiver.

  23. DSP systems. Paper in PDF.

  24. Application of Reconfigurable Computing to a High Performance Front-End Radar Signal Processor. Text in PDF.

  25. Peterson. Text in Postscript. An Assesment of the Suitability of Reconfigurable Systems for DSP.

  26. High Performance DSP. Text in PDF.

  27. Bass. A Low-Power, High-Performance, 1024-Point FFT Processor. Text in PDF.

  28. MS Thesis in PDF on Adaptive Computing in NASA Multi-Spectral Image Processing.

  29. Postscript text on An Assesment of the Suitability of FPGA-based Systems for use in DSP.

  30. Blair text in Postscript. A review of DFT.

  31. MS thesis by Ramirez Silva in PDF. On Implementing Time-Frequency Representations on Hardware/Software Computational Structures for SAR Applications.

  32. Tom Curtis on Sonar Technology. Past and Current. Text in PDF.

  33. M.S. thesis in PDF on An Approach to Low-Power, High-Performance, Fast Fourier Transform Processor Design.

  34. Broadcast transmission. Slides from Xilinx. PDF format.

    Design of large asynchronous controllers.
  1. Slides in PPT. Lecture on Direct synthesis of Large-scale asynchronous Controllers using a Petri-Net-based approach.

  2. Slides in PPT. Advanced Tutorial Lecture on Hardware Design of Asynchronous Systems and Petri Nets.

  3. Yakovlev slides in PPT on Asynchronous Technology.

  4. M.S. Thesis on Design and Implementation of an Asynchronous Pipelined Fast Fourier Transform Processor.


State Minimization
  • Rho, Hachtel and Somenzi. Paper in PDF. Exact and Heuristic Algorithms for the Minimization of Incompletely Specified State Machines.

  • Avedillo, Quintana, Huertas, New Approach to the State Reduction in Incompletely Specified Sequential Machines. Paper in PDF.

  • Avedillo, Quintana, Huertas, Efficient State Reduction methods for PLA-based sequential circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • Richard Puri. An Efficient Algorithm to Search for Minimal Closed Covers in Sequential Machines. Paper in PDF.

    Concurrent State Minimization and State Assignment
  • Avedillo, etc. A New Method for the state reduction of Incompletely Specified Finite Sequential Machines. Paper in PDF.

  • Avedillo, Quintana, Huertas, State Merging and state splitting via state assignment: a New FSM synthesis algorithm. Paper in PDF.

  • Avedillo, Quintana, Huertas, SMAS: A program for the Concurrent State Reduction and State Assignment of Finite State Machines. Paper in PDF.

  • Perkowski and Zhao. Concurrent Two-Dimensional State Minimization and State Assignment of Finite State Machines. Paper in PDF.

    Asynchronous State Machines
  • A CAD System for Automatic Synthesis of Generalized Asynchronous Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • Yun and Dill. Automatic Synthesis of 3D Asynchronous State Machines. Paper in PDF.

  • Kida and Perkowski. The Cube Calculus Machine. A Ring of Asynchronous Automata to Process Multiple-Valued Boolean Functions. Paper in PDF.

  • Beni and Liang. Pattern Recognition in Swarms - Convergence of a distributed Asynchronous and Bounded Iterative Algorithms. Paper in PDF.

    Quantum State Machines and Quantum Sequential Circuits
  • Paper in PDF. Operation of a 1-bit Quantum Flux Parametron Shift Register.

  • Rapid Single-Flux-Quantum Dual-Rail Logic for Asynchronous Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • Quantum Neurons and their Fluctuations. Paper in PDF.

  • Tools for the Computer-Aided Design of Multigigahertz Superconducting Digital Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • A New Design Approach for RSFQ Logic Circuits Based on the Binary Decision Diagram. Paper in PDF.

  • Self-Timed Parallel Adders based on DI RSFQ Primitives. Paper in PDF.

  • Towards a Systematic Design Methodology for Large Multigigahertz Rapid Flux Quantum Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • New BSFQ Circuit Designs with Wide Margins. Paper in PDF.

  • Tsai and Kuo, Quantum Boolean Circuit Construction and Layout under Locality Constraint. Paper in PDF.

  • Gao, Brayton, Mishchenko, Optimization of Multi-Valued Multi-Level Networks. Paper in PDF.

  • Tsai, Kuo, Wei. Quantum Boolean Circuit Approach for Searching an Unordered Database. Paper in PDF.

  • list of papers from conference.

  • A Novel Global Self-Timing Methodology for BSFQ Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • Wang, Lu, Tsai, Kuo, Modified Karnaugh Map for Quantum Boolean Circuit Construction. Paper in PDF.

  • A Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization. Paper in PDF.

  • Lu, Wang, Kuo. Quantum Boolean Circuits Construction Using Tabulation Method. Paper in PDF.

  • Wang, Lu, Kuo. An Efficient Functional Verification Method for Quantum Boolean Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • Locally Synchronous, Globally Asynchronous Design for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata. Paper in PDF.

  • Chang and Cheng. Automatic Synthesis of Composable Sequential Quantum Boolean Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • A Framework for Component-based Construction Extended Abstract. Paper in PDF.

  • Random Thoughts on Abstract Machines. Paper in PDF.

  • Nowick. Automatic Synthesis of Burst-Mode Asynchronous Controllers. Paper in PDF.

  • FSM Re-Engineering for Low Power State Encoding. Paper in PDF.

  • Varshavsky - A Pioneer of Asynchronous World. Paper in PDF.

  • Calazans under Davio. PHD. State Minimization and State Assignment of Finite State Machines: their relationship and their impact on the implementation. PHD Thesis in PDF.

  • Calazans, paper in PDF. Considering State Minimization during State Assignment.

  • Childs, Bacon, Wim Van Dam. From Optimal State Estimation to Efficient Quantum Algorithms. Slides in PDF.

  • Cheng and Pluna. Exact Essential-Hazard-Free State Minimization of Incompletely Specified Asynchronous Sequential Machines. Paper in PDF.

  • Causal Dependencies in Parallel Composition of Stochastic Processes. Paper in PDF.

  • Dimitri Petritis. Sequential and Asynchronous Processes Driven by Stochastic or Quantum Grammars and their Application to Genomics: A Survey. Paper in PS.

  • Perkowski et al. Approaches to the Input-Output Encoding Problem in Boolean Decomposition. Paper in PS.

  • Slides in PDF. Automatic Synthesis of Sequential Quantum Boolean Circuits Based on Self-Timed Specifications.

  • Marek Perkowski. Digital Design Automation: Finite State Machine Design. Paper in PDF.

  • R. Fuhrer, S. Nowick. Paper in Postscript. OPTIMISTA: State Minimization of Asynchronous FSMs for Optimum Output Logic.

  • Cheng and Wang. Grammar Theory Based on Quantum Logic. Paper in PDF.

  • Paper in PS. Tools and APplications II. The IF Toolset. UML and other tools.

  • Modeling the operation of Margolus Quantum Cellular Automaton using high-level Petri nets. Paper in Postscript.

  • Liu. A State Variable Assignment Method For Asynchronous Sequential Switching Circuits. Paper in PDF.

  • Paper by Avedillo in PDF. A new method for state reduction of incompletely specified FSM.

  • Perkowski. Digital Design Automation: FSM design. Paper in PDF.

  • Paper in PDF by V. Pratt. Chu Spaces: Automata with quantum aspects.

  • Chu Spaces: Automata with Quantum Aspects. Paper in PS.

  • Childs. Overview of adiabatic quantum computation. Slides in PDF.

  • Margolus. Parallel Quantum Computation. Paper in PDF.

  • Margolus. Quantum Computation. Paper in PDF.

  • Asynchronous cellular automata and asynchronous automata for pomsets. Paper in PDF.

  • Childs and Wim van Dam. Quantum Algorithm for a Generalized Hidden Shift Problem. Slides in PDF.P

  • Design and Implementation of a high-speed bit-serial SFQ adder based on the binary decision diagram. Paper in PDF.

  • Laying out circuits on asynchronous cellular arrays: a step towards feasible nanocomputers?. Paper in PDF.

  • Robert Fuhrer. Sequential Optimization of Asynchronous and Synchronous FSMs: Algorithms and Tools. Thesis in PS.

  • Design and Operation of a rapid single flux quantum demultiplexer. Paper in PDF.

  • A Basic Circuit for asynchronous superconductive logic using RSFQ gates. Paper in PDF.

  • Design and Experimentation of BSFQ logic devices. Paper in PDF.