OREGON CYBER THEATRE
by M. Perkowski
All existing Brain/Robot/Human theories such as symbol manipulation or evolutionary computing
are no more than powerful metaphors.
New metaphors may be more appropriate to develop intelligent humanoid robots.
This paper argues that it is more scientifically
interesting and fruitful to evolve a society of robots rather than to program a robot.
The high-technology industry, the internet, the quantum computer, the earth's ecology, and the
theater are all powerful metaphors that can be used to build robots and their societies.
I propose to combine ideas from
robotics, video-directing/computer animation, and puppet theater,
to create a WWW theater with robots located in our laboratory, while human
participants and observers are located worldwide on Internet. Tele-operated by humans
and/or fully autonomous,
these robots, equipped with sensors and cameras, will play Shakespeare
and personify "The Prisoner's Dilemma" as a "game of morality" with emergent behaviors.
Humans will teach robots about human emotions and behaviors.
This will be a permanent Turing test online for all its human participants and observers.
This paper is a proposal of long-term research project and an invitation to
It further extends the ideas of robot as
a data-mining evolvable hardware system, outlined in [Perkowski99a,Perkowski99c].
There is presently a debate about the best paradigms to build intelligent robots.
Below I will present my opinion in this debate and I will outline a research plan.
- Ideas and systems should be considered together with their whole environment, including history.
Every scientific idea, even revolutionary, reflects the knowledge and beliefs of its time.
There has always been an establishement of ideas (council of elders,
Church, state, community of noted scientists)
and revolutionary ideas that violated these paradigms.
Both were useful and necessary from the point of view of the
mechanism of emergence and acceptance of new ideas/systems.
It was so, it is so, and most likely it will remain so in the years to come.
Establishment, revolution, acceptance of revolution within the system,
constitute a cyclic process,
that has to be understood in order for us to be able to model it.
This concerns also the brain/man/robot debate.
- I believe the following:
- A. In the past, theories of man, brain and robot, have been developed in parallel,
influencing one another. It will remain like this, but the role of interaction and
society in creation of intelligence will grow.
- B. You cannot understand the human brain without the body, and the body without the brain.
You cannot understand the man without the society, and
the society without man.
You cannot understand a complex system without understanding its emergence.
- C. You cannot build Intelligent Robotics,
Artificial Intelligence or Artificial Life
without having to deal with
the material problems of sensors, motors, wires, effectors and base technologies.
- D. Computer is material and therefore subject to material constraints of speed, time,
power consumption, area and complexity. When we build robots and create theories of their
operation, we cannot neglect this fact.
- E. In a long run, implementing AI/AL in physical robots will prove to
be a better approach to understand intelligence and life, than constructing single-point intelligent
behaviors; such as chess programs, software ALIFE simulations or automatic theorem provers.
- In this text I will use the names "brain theory", and "robot theories" interchangeably.
I will discuss some weaknesses of previous theories and, in this context, I will propose a new
approach to robotics. I will understand this approach, however, as only one more metaphor for
intelligent robot design, and not a statement about the nature of intelligence or life.
II. REDUCTIONIST AND HOLISTIC THEORIES
All theories and systems of the past
have been reductionistic or holistic. Both approaches are useful, to a degree,
and both are incomplete.
Disregarding one of the approaches is a mistake, but in this text
I cannot keep apologizing that I am
not taking everything into account. This paper should be treated
as both reductionist and holist.
- There exists an objective truth, which is the world (Universe) itself.
Theory of truth has been precisely formulated by Tarski:
``when a sentence in a language agrees with the state of the world,
it is true, when it does not, it is not true''.
Therefore, one cannot say that "all theories are equally true/untrue". They are not.
On the other hand, for more general theories
this measure of agreement can be binary, multivalued or fuzzy.
Besides its truthfulness, a theory is characterized by its completeness.
It results from Goedel's work
that these theories (such as arithmetics) cannot be proven true and complete at the same time.
In this context, all robot theories are true to a certain degree.
Thus, mathematically, any robot theory is incomplete.
From the system point of view,
a non-trivial theory cannot be complete because only the world (Universe) itself is isomorphic to the
The theory can be true but useless, and can be untrue but heuristically
useful, because every theory is only a brick in the building of science,
built by many generations (like Newton's gravity theory is formally untrue but very useful).
Theories of robot are thus no different from previous theories in physics and biology, but
can be also evaluated the way the formal systems are.
- In the process of science, society and the evolution of technology,
theories obtain feedback from the real world, and those that are not good will not survive
as models of world.
This way the Ptolomeus astronomy or Creationist Theory were doomed to fail
in the long run, although they were successful for hundreds or thousands of years.
- Holistic theories were more true, but reductionistic theories had higher heuristic value.
For example, La Mettrie's theory of a human as a machine with pulleys, gears
and steam was not true and extremely reductionist.
He was not saying that this is only an analogy. He meant it was literally true.
But this theory advanced science more
that the holistic theories of his time.
- In the same way, the evolutionary approaches to robotics - modern darwinisms -
believe in their models literally and not as metaphors or analogies. In my understanding
every theory formulated in a natural (not formal) language is true only by analogy, and not literally,
because only the Universe is a true model of itself.
Because both man and Universe are inifitely complex, every particular theory is a simplification.
Thus, although robot theories are useful, they are limited. A dogmatic tendency to stick to one theory
is hindering the progress.
In history, theories are created in phases (like the succeeding
mechanics of Aristotle's, Newton's, Einstein's, quantum, quark, etc.).
There are links between the phases of development of theories:
- Useful holistic theories of phase N+1 cannot be built without
knowledge of reductionist theories of phase N
- Holistic theories of phase N+1 include holistic theories of phase N
- The reductionist theories of phase N+1 should include the reductionist theories
of phase N, because we understand now that a more complex system is able to model
simpler system (like a Turing-class computer can model a mechanical system, or a quantum computer can
model a standard Turing-like computer.)
Whether the next phase theory includes as subset or negates completely or selectively
the previous theory, it is not created in abstraction from this theory.
- When I write "is able to model" I state that we have to take into account computational
complexity, Goedel-like and Heisenberg-like constrained principles. Thus we cannot say that
"a computer algorithm can, in principle, exactly solve the graph coloring problem"
for arbitrary graph with 100,000 nodes
because it would physically
require a computer with more memory cells than atoms in the universe,
and more time than the Universe exist. This is the difference of material and ideal,
discussed by St. Thomas. Platonic theories that separate ideal world of numbers and abstractions
from an imperfect world of matter, have no chance to be true in robotics, although they
advance our thinking. The Turing machine with indefinite tape is thus a platonic
concept, and, not of-this-world, idea. It is of limited use in understanding how this world works.
And thus not helpful to build a real physical robot.
This was a typical mistake of Turing and successive
reductionists, from which they had subsequently to withdraw and correct their statements.
These kinds of physical constraints, embedded in systems, were not taken into
account by the reductionist theories. Ironically, the atheistic hard-AI-believers
such as Minsky or Simon, were more
platonic than the aristotelian St. Thomas and traditional thomists.
Ironically, the materialists create theories that do not take material laws into account.
Thus the theory of robot should be reductionist, holist and material.
It should be based not only on ideal thought processes but on physical interactions, processes
Artificial Intelligence theory based on building material robots in the long term
will be closer to the truth than the theory that assumes use of ideal beings such as recursive functions
operating on infinite memories.
III. THE WEAKNESSES OF THE REDUCTIONIST THEORIES
All past reductionist theories now look to us very naive from the perspective of history:
Therefore new theories, present-day myths, have been and are being created:
- A) Human is a mechanical/hydraulical machine,
- B) Human is an electrical machine,
- C) Human is a cybernetic machine (Wiener, Ashby),
- D) Human is biological machine,
- E) Human is physiological/chemical machine,
- F) Brain is a computer (Turing Machine).
which in future will most likely share the destiny of the old theories but will prove fruitful,
nevertheless in computer science, genetics, etc. And their introduction will revolutionize the society,
making it more complex and thus extending the horizon of understanding the human.
- E) Brain is a Quantum Computer,
- F) Brain is a network of computers (Finite State Machines),
- H) Brain is a Evolvable Hardware such as an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA),
- I) Brain is an Internet - Internet is a Brain,
- J) Holographic theory of a brain.
The dogmatic reductionists had always to retract their previous opinions.
It is typical to meet scientists who change their reductionist theory
every few years, and every time claim that this is a universal theory of everything.
Observe, that the same researchers who few years ago claimed that the
"brain is a computer from meat", now say that the brain is a quantum computer, because quantum
computer can solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time.
They withdraw from their previous claims about human thoughts being
Turing-like computations, now when
a better model of computing has been found which is stronger than Turing-equivalent.
AI-reductionists and AL-reductionists seem to be dogmatic believers it their own
On the other hand, when you talk to them in person, you appreciate that their
reductionist view is only to express their views uniformly and self-advertize, which is necessary
for getting funding and recognition of their ideas.
In reality they are more holist than you may expect.
The truth is that true holists and true reductionists do not exist on a certain level of sophistication.
All robot researchers should honestly admit, that the reductionists will always take the current
most powerful model of computing as the base of their model of brain and spirituality.
They have to agree that all robot theories are only ANALOGIES and are thus not true
in the real sense.
The Universe being infinite, maybe requires an infinite sequence of models to be accurately
Only the Universe can be a correct model of itself with no loss
There may be also a physical phenomena that we are completely not aware on quantum level or below,
for instance, a brain may have a holographic model of the Universe.
Brain may be part of the Universe in the way we are not yet able to understand,
so the theories of spiritual robots will always be follow-ups to new ideas in physics and biology.
Creating a human is definitely simpler than creating a Universe,
but how much simpler - we have no base to say,
and the problem if a spiritual robot can be created is perhaps unsolvable.
In conclusion, reductionist models are not true but useful. On the other hand we do not know
if they are models of "spiritual beings" as they are, or if these are models of "alive-like
creatures as they can exist".
Thus, based on these theories, we cannot know if we can build humans, or something else that
would behave as alive.
IV. BRAIN THEORIES AS ANALOGIES AND METAPHORS
- Thus, we can safely say that none of the brain theories is true, and all are true to a certain degree.
do the same mistake as religions have done in their early phases;
to treat what is symbolic, literally; and what is analogous, as a one-to-one mapping.
Regretfully, the reductionists are not able to recognize their mistake.
I did not see this idea of ANALOGY
in writings of Minsky, Simon, De Garis [DeGaris93,DeGaris97,DeGaris00,Buller98],
Moravec and other hard-AI-believers. When I read their
books I have the impression that they truly believe that IT IS SO AS THEY WRITE.
Observe, however, that this dogmatism is indeed their strength.
As it happens, the people who try to see all aspects and understand from all sides
are very slow to reach conclusions. Meanwhile, one who looks briefly and speaks quickly,
a.k.a. the reductionist, can make an impact with more speed.
- The advocates of the reductionist theories have strong
appeal to public with their catchy simple ideas. They have therefore a strong influence
in a short run. Such theories are easy to explain and thus have some appeal,
especially to an unsophisticated mind (nazism, communism, primitive churches and sects,
advocates of primitive interpretations of cybernetics or darwinism). In a long term they cannot win,
because you cannot explain the complex system by a reduction to a simple system.
If they were right, the human and the nature would be finite, and thus the real progress
in science would be soon stopped, because all questions would be answered (the "end of science theory").
And with this they cannot agree. Again, locally in time and space these theories may have positive
impact, and even wars and sufferings caused by them are non-zero sum games
and may be necessary elements of humanity growth [Wright99].
- When applied to Robot, all current "hot" theories such as Genetic Algorithms, Evolutionary Computing,
intelligent agents, Neural Nets, Symbol Manipulation, Fuzzy Logic modeling,
brain modeling, "brain building", despite the much influence they have now,
will share the fate of former reductionist theories, but will still remain useful components
in the evolutions of science, technology and human society.
V. THE WEAKNESS OF HOLISTIC THEORIES
- Now that we criticized the reductionist theories, let us observe that holists have their own sins.
- If a theory is too general and too holistic, it can be understood by very few people
and it tries to accomodate too much to make any point. Telling everything truthfully,
it tells nothing of use or of interest.
By trying to make no mistakes, it avoids telling some local truth that may be useful.
By trying to avoid bias, no learning can be accomplished. Every learning process involves certain bias
and hence the learning without bias is not possible. Induction is nearly always false
("all birds fly") but is the main way to learn. Holistic theories tend to concern
themselves with observing phenomena and stating
facts and rarely trying to explain the phenomena.
If they do try to explain, it is usually not very constructive.
It must be asserted that holistic theories rely on a very passive paradox.
They are often collections of obvious and unexciting truisms.
The God of holism truly needs the Satan of reductionism to make the world.
The infinite cannot be explained without the finite, nor the complex without the simple.
- With these irrationalities and pragmatic impediments
the great literature and the holy texts of many religions
took another approach to tell the all-encompassing truth
- that of paradoxes and contradictions.
The solution was to tell stories
that can be understood more or less metaphorically. The story of Original Sin
is here a perfect example because it allows for so many interpretations, and each of
them quite creative.
- It is extremely difficult to create a complete holistic and
constructive theory of everything (and a theory of robot is theory of everything!).
- Such theory would be necessary to build truly humanoid robots - the
(we distinguish here
between humanoid robots that certainly will be build and will exceed humans in many areas,
and the philosophical concept of "spiritual robots" [Kurzweil99] as a new form of life).
- Because it seems very unlikely to create such a theory, we are left with two discourses.
One, allow the robot science to remain in the realm of
the dialectically understood reductionist/holist loop of theories.
Two, free the robot science from the loop in favor of a theatrical interpretation:
one that offers insights through metaphor, drama and allows the observer any number of creative
interpretations. We do not know what will be evolved, but we will intentionally create
an environment in which the mystery of creation in narrower, theatrical sense, can happen.
VI. LIFE AND INTELLIGENCE. NEW METAPHORS TO BUILD ROBOTS.
- The fundament of life is reproduction and survival, including competition (for space, for
food, for female). Thus, no true humanoid robot can be created that would be not able to reproduce
freely in a real world environment. If we believe in evolution, let the evolution create such robot,
otherwise we are creating robot for us and not for Universe, so we are not creating true intelligence.
Because science did not (yet?) create a technology that would allow
for real reproduction, and we model robots without
their real need for survival, we are not working on true models of life yet. Cyborgs will be humans
with protheses, it will be not really a new life form.
Only if we would create life from scratch on nano-technology level (Drexler) it would be
a true emergence of life. Everything else is a simulation.
One may figuratively say that we are cheating in our competition with God, because
He created humans using "his own ash" and we try to use His ash).
Only if Earthly "genotype seeds" would be send to another planet, and would create life,
would we be able to talk about creating life and intelligence in a philosophical sense.
But this is still science fiction.
Let us then take another approach.
- Much of human race's current efforts to model brain and build robots
are just plays similar to a theatre. Theater can be great
and deep, it tells much about life and world, but it is not the world itself.
Theater is a good metaphor. Primitive religions and societal powers originated from
theater, so theater is a natural way to express symbolism outside purely material
means of comunication. It is the oldest art and the source of symbolic thinking.
Reconstructing the emergence of human society cannot be done without understanding the theater.
The role of theater was recognized by many great thinkers, anthropologists,
and theater theorists/reformers [Campbell, Elliade,Stanislawski, Grotowski, Kantor].
Greek science and philosophy were preceded by hundreds if not
thousands years of mystery plays and theatre.
We will especially concentrate on great myths of ancient cultures, such as the myth of Prometheus.
Theater is at the origin of
all civilizations and is easier to model by robots than the sexual reproduction or
the "survival of fittest" between human races or societal organizations.
Interestingly, one of the first
books ever written on theater, by Hero of Alexandria,
as early as in the first century, was devoted to a robot theater [Hero-of-Alexandria].
was also predicted by great theater reformer and director Bertold Brecht
in a book "Radio Theory", in late twenties [Brecht67].
Brecht wrote about a transformation of broadcasting from distribution
only to a communication system in which the listeners actively influence the contents
of the action. But he was not able to predict the Internet technology of today.
Ramon Lullus; the medieval priest Anzelm, philosopher-teacher of Saint Thomas; the rabbi from Prague;
Pascal; Descartes and Leibnitz;
they were all fascinated by robots, mechanical puppets, Golems, mechanical men and talking heads.
There is a long-term link between robotics and theater, creation and mystery,
and this relation has never been just
for entertainment, or only accidental.
Time has finally come, that it can be investigated in its fullest.
- Here I will propose a new theory for a robot, understanding that it is only
a one more hypothesis in a long chain of theories
that will be as long as humanity - a growing
and emerging system by itself - will exist.
The presented theory is based on four analogies:
- J) Robot as a High-Technology industry,
- K) Robot as an Internet of Quantum Computers,
- L) Robot as an Earth ecological system, the world (Gaia-like hypothesis),
- M) Society of Robots as a Theater.
- In contrast to other researchers, I do not treat these analogies literally,
My claim is only heuristic, and I believe that only a practical success verifies
the theory, and only locally.
Because every theory is useful only locally in time and in its application area
(the most successful computer/robot applications were based on very limited principles -
Deep Blue chess program, Samuel's checkers program, ping-pong robot, etc.),
a better theory is the one that allows to create better limited robots in a given moment of time.
Not one that creates unverified general claims.
Ultimately, every real robot will include a system of many theories.
So, the Genetic Algorithm theory is in no way "philosophically better" than
for instance the heuristic search theory.
They are both models, and one of them can be locally better to model some particular behavior of a robot.
I am not a purist, I am a pragmatist and I do not believe in any particular theory
for building robots. My goal is to take metaphors from the world to build interactive
plays/games for a robot theatre/society.
In the past our research group took methods from Logic Synthesis and applied them to
Data Mining, being part of a robot [Perkowski99a, Perkowski99c].
I believe that the science and world are
full of analogies, all of them could be useful
if just the robot researchers would find time and interest to study them.
- Let us now explain first the analog methodologies (models, theories) listed above,
and next how they will be used in the Oregon Cyber Theatre, our
reductionist/holist robot model.
- Referring to point J.
Although may be Nature uses Darwinian algorithm, human society has invented
another methods of solving problems, so the darwinists cannot exclude
that other learning processes may be emergent in Nature.
Mathematics, physics, logic, Search theory or game theory give better
problem-solving algorithms than the Genetic Algorithm in many practical
problems such as deriving formulas from examples. Why then should we be restricted
to Darwinian evolutionary approaches only?
For instance, the modern high technology companies and high-technology world market are the
most complex systems that ever existed. Let us observe how a new microprocessor chip in Intel,
the most complex system ever build by humans, is constructed.
In my opinion, nobody with common sense would propose to develop such a chip using Genetic Algorithm
or search methods. Engineers and researchers
in "design sciences" developed many specialized theories of optimizing layout,
logic, chip architecture, routing, circuits, etc. Each of them requires highly sophisticated
knowledge of mathematics or/and physics. It would be totally hopeless to build such chip based on any
single theory of mind, that the dogmatic purists believe are the base of
Modeling the way Intel designs chips would help us build a robot brain.
Developing theories, creating prototype software, testing, verifying, prototyping,
doing this everything with very many local and global feedback
loops. There are many models of the outside world. How do we know that the Nature does not work like this?
Therefore we proposed [Perkowski99a,Perkowski99c]
to use logic-synthesis/evolvable-hardware/FPGA-design-methods as a competitor to GA and NNs to design
systems that will learn in real time. I am not excluding GAs (Darwinian, Baldwinian, Lamarckian, etc.),
I just want to find a local,
proper place for evolutionary methods in the whole framework of ideas for humanoid robots.
- Referring to point K.
In the "The Society of Mind" theory, Minsky proposed perhaps for the first time
a powerful metaphor of a brain as a society of individual agents [Minsky]. These ideas were
next proven practical by Rodney Brooks [Brooks], and become now dominant in robotics.
I accept this metaphor in its entirety, and in addition I propose to use the analogy to the Internet
with its distributed control and self-growth mechanisms.
Because even the entire Internet cannot solve NP-complete problems of useful size, I assume that
in future the individual computer nodes of Giga-Net will be quantum computers.
With the very inexpensive microcontrollers, sensors, memory chips and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs),
this theory can become practical soon.
Building a robot with 100 microcontrollers, each controlling a single muscle,
already becomes a reality even for a university with average funding.
Because we cannot build quantum
computers yet, we will model their constrained and probabilistic behavior
in FPGAs and microcontrollers, of course sacrificing much
speed and computational performance, but learning their nature and possible applications.
- Referring to point L.
The above remarks relate also to the "robot as a world" metaphor.
Combining the above two metaphors with other system-theoretical models
and data mining systems, we will be able to create models of learning and behavior
more powerful than the existing one-sided models (NN, FL, GA, GP, search,
game theory, symbol manipulation, automatic theorem proving).
The problem, unsolved so far by anybody, is only this - how to combine different models?
Much recent research is
devoted to this subject, but so far no systems have been created that would demonstrate
solving this dilemma.
I believe that the combination methods should use adaptation, learning, voting
and negotiating processes, game theory and self-emergence, and be thus "evolutionary",
but not necessarily based on current evolutionary paradigms.
VII. ROBOT THEATER.
Because I believe in emergence-based approach to intelligence modeling, I would like to see
intelligence emerging from interactions in the developed by us society of robots.
Robots will be build based on principles from previous sections.
As software, they will be the "society of robots", and they will learn both individually and as a society.
Besides, the "brains" of some of our robots will be societies by themselves.
This is a long-range research project,
in which various agent-building approaches [Norvig] will be used in software and FPGAs.
Modern technology allows to create orchestra without humans [Kurzweil].
Synergy of automated music generation and computer animation is possible but to my knowledge
it has been not investigated in a theater.
We will be able to create realistic agents such as giants, angels, dwarfs and sirenes.
Computer robot animation will soon allow to create effects that will far exceed what is now
understood by realism. Surrealistic and Superrealistic world of future
robot theaters will be fascinating to humans. Unimaginable reality will happen and will be understood.
We will be able to create figures from smoke and fire,
to project moving light images on mist.
Intelligent robots and automated
theatres will have an unlimited potential to tell even most unbelivable stories with a total
freedom of artistic expression. Public will freely interact with robots
in non-predictable scenarios. New forms of art will emerge that will be far more engaging
than theatre or cinema.
Some artists speculate that robotization will bring a new kind of mystery
so characteristic to, for instance, mystery plays or puppet theatre.
In contrast to film animations where the animation effects cannot be observed
in real matter and real time,
or Disney-like theme parks where the animation is totally programmed and separated from the audience,
new robotic theaters will allow for the total interaction and communication with the public.
So, the barrier between the humans
and the robot-actors will become blurred and will finally disappear (in the theater).
The influence of this new art form on children is now hard to predict,
but so far, the early experience shows that ``everybody loves robots'', and especially
``children love robots''. Creators of this new art form must thus act very responsibly.
But, this is a long term perspective. Let us concentrate on the few coming years.
In our theatre, robots will be taught and introduced to movements/behaviors by humans
who will tele-remotely act as these robots playing roles of humans, animals, angels, and devils.
They will teach them to speak, pronounce, move, perform, act, behave and learn.
The Machine Learning and evolutionary techniques of both supervised and unsupervised learning will be used.
They will be partially realized in hardware (FPGA/microcontroller parallel systems),
to obtain speed impossible in software.
These humans-operators will be researchers like me and my graduate students,
undergraduate and high-school students, and also the tele-visitors from all over the
world, who will play roles in plays performed in the robot theater.
It still remains to be decided what plays will be performed,
but perhaps classical tragedies and commedies will be more influential than a cabaret.
For instance, we will try to adapt the myth of Prometheus to our environment.
The goal will be to involve people around the world
to think about the fundaments of collaboration,
conflict, cooperation, egoism, altruism, movement, dance,
speech, recognition, interaction, immitation, group behavior, myth, theatre, art, and creativity.
Nobody yet proposed to create a ROBOTIC THEATER on WWW.
There exist few puppet theaters with robots as puppets [Ullanta00, MUSEUM]. There are single robots connected
to WWW [USC], but there is no robot theatre on WWW. We will call it the
OREGON CYBER THEATRE.
Let us be brave enough to try this new idea - and observe what will emerge.
- OREGON CYBER THEATRE
Oregon Cyber Theatre will be composed of:
Physically, most puppets-robots will be in the first phase rather small. Thus our tallest puppet,
a walking human, is about 1/2 meter high.
This small size allows to control the robots from inexpensive servo motors, that are used
in radio-controlled airplane and car models, keeping the cost of a single
robot below 1000 $ in year 2000 money.
A puppet walking on 6 legs is simpler to build and control (Figures 1 and 3), than one walking on four.
Walking bipeds are the most challenging to build and we do not plan to build them in the first phase.
On the other hand, robot technology gives us the freedom to design new "life forms" such as
or three-legged insects.
We expect that in few years the price of a robot with about 30 degrees of freedom will drop
to about 100 dollars. We will be able to have about 20 robots in the theatre in year 2005,
and thus to have full scale performances with many actors.
- A. Robots-puppets located in interdisciplinary
Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Portland State University (Suite FAB 70).
- B. Cameras and sensors located on the puppets
(for instance in their eyes, see Figure 1.)
- Computer controlled cameras, Figure 2, for passive observers will be located in various locations
in the room.
Figure 1. Walking Hexapod Spider with a camera.
Figure 2. Computer Controlled camera using OWI arm built from a kit.
Such camera can be build for less than $ 100 in year 2000.
- C. Microphones and other sensors in the physical theatre.
- D. Computers in the lab controlling the robots by radio, tethered or directly.
They will range from laptops to special-purpose FPGA-based supercomputers.
Movement control, learning, image processing, natural language/speech software,
and AI software will be installed on these computers.
This software will be developed at Portland State University (PSU),
Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) and by our external collaborators.
All computers will be linked to WWW.
- E. Global recording mechanisms of what happens on the scene.
All control decisions, events, images, sounds, sensor readings, etc. will be recorded
as a base for further protocol analysis and learning processes.
- F. Computers linked to WWW in Internet tele-sites.
- G. Role-playing software at tele-sites, WWW-linked to our software controlling
the puppets and the scene (lights, scene rotations, etc).
- H. In the next phase, cameras located in tele-agent sites. Thus such camera can look at a person
in Honolulu and replicate her movements to our spider or dog puppet (the "avatar concept"
well-known from multimedia and video-animation systems).
- I. In the next phase, microphones and sensors located at tele-sites.
Persons will use their own body movements and voice to act, this will be transformed to the
movements and voices of robotic puppets.
Our plan is first to build 8 radio-controlled spiders with grippers and cameras.
We will be thus able to observe and demonstrate some simple societal emerging phenomena.
Having eight spiders will allow us to designate
four of them as males and four as females, two couples in a "country".
This will allow to perform the plays
and observe emerging phenomena such as: duel, war, love, sexual reproduction, creation
of families (polygamistic and monogamistic), collaboration, competition,
emergence of hierarchy, belief and morality. Truth telling and lying robots.
Cheating and honest workers. Ten Commandements adapted to robot-spiders miniworld versus
Three Robotics Laws of Asimov.
Next generation of robots will be "Hexapod Centaurs", build in scale 4:1,
with six legs for better stability and strength,
but with "human-like" upper body - head and hands.
This will allow to extend the repertoire of plays and games.
Figure 3. A radio-controlled Basic Spider with a gripper.
Currently we have one fully operational walking robot only; a Spider, Figure 1.
The next one will walk in few days. Two more spiders will be ready in summer of 2000.
Next we will add more dogs, cats, horses, spiders, turtles and other animals.
We will build animated humans, but they will be not walking.
These robots will be stationary or wheeled (perhaps some in wheelchairs).
Many robots will be built by converting Halloween items, toys, mannequines
and other existing items, Figures 4, 5 and 6.
After-holiday sales provide oportunity to purchase such items at a fraction of their original price,
which is a real bargain for robot enthusiasts.
Some other are built from commercially available kits and upgraded (Figure 7).
Many excellent robotic toys are fabricated in China and Japan, they will be also used
after computer interfacing and mechanical modifications, Figure 8.
Figure 4. Talking and dancing bears.
Figure 5. Halloween Skeletons. This 10$ (on sale) toy can be converted
to a talking and moving robot.
Figure 6. A variety of heads that can be converted
to talk arbitrary text by replacement of their EPROMs with parallel port interface to PC.
Figure 7. A talking head with Servo motors.
Figure 8. A Furby toy without her fur. Interface added.
There will be also mobile robots on wheels, Figures 9 and 10.
Concluding, not every play can be realistically played in the coming few years.
We need to find a writer to write a play for the "actors" shown here and others that we have.
On the other hand, it may be interesting
to play the ``Romeo and Julliet'' with spiders and dogs, or human-like-robot-actors in wheelchairs
or on tricycles.
Figure 9. A battle of wheeled mobile robots.
Figure 10. Dog does not like the mobile arm.
Our robots will have certain degree of autonomy and certain degree of tele-operation.
The autonomy will include the non-deterministic rule-based systems and emergent
behaviors based on Finite State Machine Distributed agents.
Hardware-realized random number generators will be used in them.
So definitely, their autonomous behavior will be not predictable, although
it will be constrained to a certain degree.
You do not know which path the robot will take to omit an obstacle,
but you can predict that it will try to do this and will not fly above.
This way, for instance, additional conflicts or funny situations may emerge in plays.
The tele-operation will be radio-connected to the control/transmission computer linked to Internet.
"Brains" of more complex robots, such as the MUVAL (MUltiple-VAued Logic robot, reasoning in
multiple-valued logic), will
be constructed as "societies of agents",
Figures 11, 12 and 13. Each agent will be either autonomous or controlled
by a human located somewhere on the Internet.
A person from Singapore could control the right hand and a person from Hawai
the walking gaites. The voice will come from the memory or it will come, say, from Hungary.
Thanks to Internet technology,
all the software recognition-processing-generating software can be distributed world-wide.
Figure 11. A MUVAL robot (from the left). Will we find collaborators
to improve his (i.e. Muval's) appearence and intelligence?
Figure 12. Closer look at the interface between MUVAL and PC.
Figure 13. Permanent competition for Muval's head: a head designed
by Mateusz Perkowski at the cost of $40 in year 2000 dollars.
We predict that complete computer-operated heads under $ 20 will come
from the industry in 2001.
Figure 14. Pneumatic technology, you can see the artificial muscles at the right
and PC interface with valves at left.
In addition to electric control, our robots will have pneumatic control based on inexpensive
artificial pneumatic muscles, a new inexpensive technology developed in last few years, Figure 14.
We experiment also with inexpensive hydraulic technologies based on pistons and syringes,
and we find them easy to use and very promising for robot theater applications.
The performance will be partially organized, like playing Shakespeare, but
the actors/agents may deviate from the text, something non-expected can happen,
or some tele-agents will be missing, so they will be replaced by automated software
This theatre will be a permament Turing test for all its human participants and observers.
Humans in Lab 70 and on Internet
will play roles of observers(audience) and/or participants (actors, agents).
If you will play the role of the spider, you will see the view of the scene
as seen by the camera in the eyes of the spider walking on the scene surface.
If you will be a bird or an angel, you will see the scene from the above, but your body will be not
seen by the audience.
In the future plays, you, the tele-operator,
can be a human-robot, an animal-robot, an alien, a mushroom, a plant,
a dragon, an angel, a machine. True big industrial robots will be next incorporated
to change the scene and play the roles of giants.
In addition to dramas and commedies, dances and vocal performances by robots,
we will organize educational seanses. For instance, Figure 14 presents a setup
with a Professor's Head, who explains the robot test
technology to students.
The entire view of the Rhino Robot in a setup for automatic test and fault location with self-repair.
In the first plan you see the conveyor belt with the board for test/self-repair.
On the right there
is the Professor's Head that will explain the project to students in English.
Our software will unify several models, especially models of learning, that are known in various areas.
For instance we will use all software developed for logic synthesis [Perkowski99,Perkowski99c,Alan],
as a base of learning.
As examples, functional-decomposition-based
learning will be used for:
- recognition of objects in image: human faces, other robots, obstacles, inanimate objects.
- recognition of objects in movement: learning to walk, information from leg sensors, compass,
sonars, other senors.
- recognition in which objects are situations; learn how to behave.
(this is done using a higher-order relational data descriptions, created automatically
based on lower level processes.
Thus our learning software will use all stages of language L problem/constraint/environment description,
its convertion to non-deterministic finite state machines, decomposition,
minimization and encoding, as well as functional decomposition and minimization
of multi-valued functions and relations. They will serve to
describe, optimize and implement the robot behaviors in FPGA hardware.
We will follow here the analogy
of creating behaviors as compositions of simple and complex agents - state machines,
that can be build using the most advanced synthesis methods rather than
the Genetic Algorithm methods as described in [DeGaris00], [DeGaris00a], [Miller99].
Although we are using here the extensions of many methods from classical logic synthesis,
observe that because of unknown values, noise in data, relational rather than
functional description of data, non-determinism,
very high percent of don't cares, the need for discretization of input data,
uncertain nature of results, and other properties typical for machine learning and data
mining but absent in classical synthesis, our approach calls for new logic synthesis
theory and algorithms.
We will generalize multiple-valued logic synthesis towards general probabilistic, nondeterministic,
continuous, and fuzzy functions and relations, as well as to reversible and quantum logic [Kerntopf00].
The theory should apply to very large functions, relations and machines,
take into account noise, unknown values, and generalized don't cares such as is in relations
Therefore, it will be based on implicit problem representation
The new decomposition theory will be very general and will include
not only our previous generalizations to Ashenhurst/Curtis Decomposition
but also new decomposition based on the Reconstructurability Analysis [Zwick00].
Similarly to previous logic design and machine learning theories,
it should use Occam Razor Principle as its fundament.
We will extend to this new logic the new information-theory based approaches to multi-level logic synthesis
and state machines, such as those
from [Popel00] and [Jozwiak00].
This new theory will be oriented towards
Reconfigurable Hardware and specifically, the Learning Hardware.
It should be geared towards either the non-hardware realizations such as realization
of decomposed netlists by Prolog-like rules and fuzzy rules, or the
newest hardware technologies based on multiplexed FPGAs such as Virtex of Xilinx.
(Recall, that we treate Learning Hardware as a generalization of Evolvable Hardware in which any
learning method is realized in reconfigurable hardware, rather the darwinian
genetic algorithm only.)
Thus, we postulate creation of new logic synthesis theory.
The developed by us partial automata will be of two types:
some will correspond to characteristic behaviors that are highly automated in animals,
such as walking or eating.
The other will be various learning engines realized in hardware.
So far, we realized the Cube Calculus Machine [Sendai92], the Functional
Decomposition Machine and the Rough Set Machine [Euro-Micro99].
We know of course that there is no Cube Calculus Machine in our brain, but we realize
it for our robot's brain as an efficient method to solve combinatorial problems
that occur in robot's vision
and learning (such as graph coloring or matching.)
Whether actual brain works like this or not, is irrelevant.
Actual brain does also not work using GA or NN metaphors, either.
So, as I wrote, no model can claim to be any "more true" than the other.
Let the best metaphor win a stage.
Various voting and agent-like behaviors will be used
to combine the machines, but we agree
that our approach is weak here, as are also the other.
We count on our technology's hardware speed, and also on our implementation
of new ideas taken from game theory.
The construction of the "brain" will be hierarchical and heterarchical, based on many levels
of voting and competing behaviors.
The lowest levels will be highly automated for speed and efficiency.
The lowest level, the Movement Control, will relate to spider's
ability to walk straight forward, backward, turn left, right,
sit on its back, to bend the knees, to "lay dead", walk, dance,
avoid small obstacles, climb the stairs, hobble along, etc.
All these behaviors will be prespecified and preprogrammed, but their combinations
and variants will be emergent.
Part of the lowest level control will be in the microcontroller on robot's body,
part in FPGA boards of the radio-connected PC, and part in its software.
In our sollipsistic
approach, all sensors, switches and effectors will be doubled by software data structures
which will create and receive symbolic information
for the robot's brain. Thus going from real to simulated worlds and vice versa
will be easy, and internal models that robot may have about its environment may be compared
with the real data during interaction with the environment.
Higher level behavior layer will include the basic behaviors and scenarios
in the world of robots, that can however be highly unstructured. They
will include: avoidance of large obstacles requiring planning, path and movement planning
(also in the presence of unfriendly moving obstacles),
duels and fights, copulation and love scenes, food collection (batteries) and
eating, child raising, sleeping and rest, entertainment.
The first variant of a program that combines ready search scenarios with Genetic
Algorithm used to select the best program in the space of programs is described in [Dill00].
There will be a separate system for image processing and vision.
It will use the developed by us previously standard image processing software,
based on line detection
and shape recognition using various Hough and other Transforms.
The typical applications include ball recognition for "soccer-like" games,
sword recognition for duels, other robot recognition
for all social behaviors, and human face recognition for demos
("where does my teacher stand?")
A complete speech recognition/natural language/speech generation software from Oregon
Graduate Institute will be used, with no modifications in the first phase of research.
This will allow in the first phase the humans to control robots by sound commands,
and learn about spiders "emotions", "states of characters" and "chromosomes".
In the next stage this technology will be also used for robot-robot communication.
Again, typical language/speech-generation scenarios will include:
singing; speech generation representing emotions;
robot, animal, alien, and human voices and expression styles; voice acting techniques
of a human theater.
Our robots will be highly emotional. It means, the emotion modeling system will be central
in their brains and will globally affect operation of all subsystems.
Rational and irrational behaviors will be competing on the free-market of the society of mind;
the black-board architecture.
The state of the character of each agent will be described by a vector:
[energy level, maturity level, hunger satisfaction, sexual instinct satisfaction,
social acceptance satisfaction, power satisfaction, moral self-satisfaction, intelectual satisfaction]
Highly complex equations, partially human-created, partially evolved, will use
cellular automata, fuzzy dynamic logic [Buller00] and game theory models leading to dynamics
of chaos, immediate mood changes and other emergent phenomena.
The state of the society is described by the Cartesian product of states of its members.
The highest controlling computer
can play the role of God of Spider's World, analysing the dynamics of the general vector
and globally broadcasting some parameters such as behavior-releasing thresholds.
These phenomena are known to control societies of ants or termites.
Social behaviors of the spider society will include the mechanisms
that are the fundament of animal kingdom: fight for survival and seeking for food,
as well as sexual reproduction.
Food will be simulated by batteries for which the robots will be seeking when hungry.
They may choose to fight for the batteries or cooperate in providing themselves with batteries.
Similarly, monogamic or polygamic families may emerge.
Sexual reproduction will be simulated by crossover algorithm; the closely located and
positioned robots of opposite sexes will exchange the electrical codes
of their chromosomes, modeling the Genetic Algorithm.
This will create a chromosome for a new robot mind, which will be radio-transmitted
to one of the previously
idle robots. This robot will know its parents and will be now subject to their education.
The observers will be able at any time to perform software vivisection, to
learn and visualize on their computer screens the emotion vectors and the chromosomes of any robot.
Aging process will be simulated by decreasing energy levels with time and battle injuries
as seen by sensors.
When the energy level decreases below some threshold, the robot dies, it means
it is send physically to the pool of idle robots, waiting for its reincarnation after a following sex act of some
of the surviving robots. Only robots with certain values
of energy level and other parameter levels are allowed to reproduce.
The emergent behaviors will include duels and fights, structured
or not, between the spiders. Some kind of ritual behaviors typically associated
with war, marriage and family may emerge.
The robots will be able
to create coalitions to achieve goals, these coalitions will include food seeking,
families, countries, and armies.
This will require adapting the known theories of coalition and conflict, mostly based on game theory,
to the programming of the spider society.
Both zero-sum and non-zero sum games will be programmed, and the
interesting phenomena that happen on their borders and their inteplay will be simulated
The weights in the game matrices
will be permanently updated to reflect changing emotions of spiders.
The role of communication between partners
of non-zero games will be investigated [Wright99].
We expect that many phenomena such as coalition forming, cooperation and competion
will be observable. We expect also to be pleasantly surprised by what may happen
and we cannot predict now.
Recent research on axiomatic morality uses models from game theory,
automatic theorem proving, knowledge-based reasoning, higher-order logic, and constraints programming
We will program all the known models, in Prolog, Fuzzy Prolog and new constrained-programming
and inductive programming languages, as the highest
level of spiders' society control. Next, we will experiment with emergent
behaviors, and emergent software creation by robots.
The moral codes will first include
Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics, but soon we will enhance them
by simplified Ten Commandements or other highly abstract laws - higher order logic rule sets, adapted
to spiders' conditions. The laws will
be taken from books on ethics, temporal logic, multivalued logic, verification theory
and various continuous and modal logics [Hajnicz].
No attempt at consistency of the global logic system of any of the robotic agents or societies
will be taken. Let the emergence decide if logical spiders have higher
chance of survival.
Although we put so much emphasis on emotions and emergence,
the role of Internet and controlling humans cannot be neglected, especially in the first phase.
The collection of data about robot movements, behaviors and interactions,
that will come from human-controlled keyboards, joysticks and microphones,
will be collected and stored for reuse.
The system will automatically create the evergrowing repertoire of future theater plays, robot interactions,
games and life in form of stored assemblies of control signals and associated sounds.
In addition, the users will also send through the WWW ready controlling scenarios of plays.
One can conclude that
in the first phases the WWW technology to be used in the theatre will be
quite similar to the one used in WWW chat rooms.
We will observe what are the human preferences towards expected and preferred robots' behaviors,
what the observers want to play in our theater and what do they feel about it.
So far, I found that people want to construct and see "robot sex and violence" as well as
competitive behaviors such as battles and sport competitions,
rather than robot intellectual behaviors. Instead to be scandalized, let us remember that
"Romeo and Julliet" or "King Lear" can be also characterized as "sex and violence".
Thus, as it is in the true art,
let us try to use the vehicle of theater to
emerge the angelic parts of spiders' souls above their animal natures,
in order to appreciate the mystery of life.
This paper is the first in series about Oregon Cyber Theatre.
The ideas of the theater and the robots design will
be presented in more detail in the forthcoming papers.
In particular, future papers will cover robot construction, image processing software,
machine learning, agents, modeling of social behaviors and emergent morality,
and WWW interfacing.
The reader interested in more technical details should consult the literature given below.
I proposed here a long-term research project and a world-wide invitation to collaboration.
We plan to find researchers and enthusiasts with all kinds of skills,
talents and interests; people with writing/directing, robot-building, psychology,
biology and many other backgrounds.
For instance, we look for somebody who understands well behaviors and movements of spiders, or social
behaviors of insects.
I would like to thank Martin Zwick and Alan Mishchenko for stimulating discussions,
and to Alan Mishchenko, Craig Files, Stanislaw Grygiel, Karen Dill,
Michael Levy, Anas Al-Rabadi, Rahul Malvi, Kevin Stanton, Tu Dinh and others, for writing software.
Finally, hard work of Robo-Club and Electric Horse groups and especially Bryce Tucker
and Jeff Ratcliffe should be mentioned. Michael Levy helped also to improve this text.
I would like to acknowledge grants from Intel Corporation,
Portland State University Foundation, Deans Office, and Provost funds.
Also equipment donations from
Tektronix Inc., Seiko Robots, Xilinx, Altera, and private donors.
Creation of this laboratory would not have been possible without many helps and
encouragements from Doug Hall, the Interim Chair of ECE.
Children hospitals and high-schools in Oregon may request our visit and robot demonstration.
- [Abu-Mostafa88] Y. Abu-Mostafa (ed.), `` Complexity in Information Theory,''
Springer Verlag, New York, 1988, p. 184.
I. Asimov, `` I, Robot,'' Fawcett, New York, 1950.
- [Ashenhurst57] R.L. Ashenhurst, ``The Decomposition of Switching Functions'',
Proc. Int. Symp. of Th. of Switching, 1957.
I. Bratko, ``Prolog Programming for Artificial Intelligence,''
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, 1986.
Bertold Brecht, Radiotheorie (Radio Theory), in:
Gesammelte Schriften, Vol.18, Frankfurt/M. 1967, pp.119-134
- [Buller98] A. Buller, ``Artificial Brain. Phantasies no more,''
Proszynski i Ska, Warsaw, 1998, (in Polish).
- [Buller00] A. Buller, ``Dynamic Fuzzy Sets,'' this proceedings.
- [Bryant86] R.E. Bryant, ``Graph-based algorithms for boolean function manipulation,
IEEE Transactions on Computers, C-35, No. 8, pp. 667-691, 1986.
- [Codd] E.F. Codd,
``A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks,'' Comm. ACM, 13, pp. 377-387.
H.A. Curtis, ``A New Approach to the Design of Switching Circuits,''
Princeton, N.J., Van Nostrand, 1962.
- [Danielson92] P. Danielson,
``Artificial Morality, Virtuous Robots for Virtual Games,'' Routledge, U.K., 1992.
- [Dawkins76] R. Dawkins, ``The Selfish Gene,''
Oxford University Press, New Yor, 1976.
- [Dennett88] D. Dennett,
``When philosophers encounter artificial intelligence,'' Daedalus, 117: pp. 283-295, 1988.
- [Dill97] K. Dill, and M. Perkowski,
``Minimization of Generalized Reed-Muller Forms with Genetic Operators,''
Proc. Genetic Programming '97 Conf., July 1997, Stanford Univ., CA.
K. Dill, J. Herzog, and M. Perkowski, ``Genetic Programming and its
Application to the Synthesis of Digital Logic,''
Proc. PACRIM '97, Canada, August 20-22, 1997.
K.M. Dill and M. Perkowski,
``Creation of a Cybernetic (Multi-Strategic Learning) Problem-Solver:
Automatically Designed Algorithms for Logic Synthesis and Minimization,'' this proceedings.
- [Drexler86] K.E. Drexler, ``Engines of Creation,'' Anchor Press, New York, 1986.
- [Furguson81] R. Furguson, ``Prolog: A step towards the ultimate computer language,''
Byte, 6, pp. 384-399, 1981.
C. Files, M. Perkowski, ``An Error Reducing Approach
to Machine Learning Using Multi-Valued Functional Decomposition,''
Proc. ISMVL'98, pp. 167 - 172, May 1998.
C. Files, M. Perkowski, ``Multi-Valued Functional Decomposition
as a Machine Learning Method,'' Proc. ISMVL'98, pp. 173 - 178, May 1998.
- [Files00] C. Files, and M. Perkowski, ``Decomposition based on MVDDs,''
accepted to IEEE Transactions on Computer Aided Design.
- [Files00a] C. Files,
``Machine Learning Using New Decomposition of Multi-Valued Relations,'' this proceedings.
H. DeGaris, ``Evolvable Hardware: Genetic Programming of a Darwin Machine,''
In ``Artificial Nets and Genetic Algorithms,'' R.F. Albrecht, C.R. Reeves and N.C. Steele (eds),
Springer Verlag, pp. 441-449, 1993.
H. DeGaris, ``Evolvable Hardware: Principles and Practice,''
CACM Journal, August 1997.
- [DeGaris00a] H. DeGaris, his recent book.
- [Hamburger79] H. Hamburger, ``Games as Models of Social Phenomena,'' W.H. Freeman and Company, 1979.
- [Hero] Hero of Alexandria, ``On Pneumatics, Hydraulics and Mechanical Theater''.
T. Higuchi, M. Iwata, and W. Liu (eds), ``Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware,''
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, No. 1259,
Proc. First Intern. Conf. ICES'96, Tsukuba, Japan, October 1996,
Springer Verlag, 1997.
- [Hillis88] W. D. Hillis, ``Intelligence as an emergent behavior,''
Daedalus, 117, pp. 175-189, 1988.
L. Jozwiak, M.A. Perkowski, D. Foote, ``Massively Parallel Structures
of Specialized Reconfigurable Cellular Processors for Fast Symbolic Computations,''
Proc. MPCS'98 - The Third International Conference on Massively
Parallel Computing Systems, Colorado Springs, Colorado - USA, April 6-9, 1998.
- [Jozwiak00] L. Jozwiak, and A. Slusarczyk, ``Application of Information Relationships and Measures
to Decomposition and Encoding of Incompletely Specified Sequential Machines,'' this proceedings.
- [Kerntopf00] P. Kerntopf, ``Logic Synthesis using Reversible Gates,'' this proceedings.
- [Kurzweil] R. Kurzweil, ``The Age of Spiritual Machines,'' 1999.
- [Langton89] Ch.G. Langton (ed.),
``Artificial Life: The Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop
on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems,''
September 1987, Los Alamos, Addison-Wesley, 1989.
- T. Lewis, M. Perkowski, and L. Jozwiak,
``Learning in Hardware: Architecture and Implementation
of an FPGA-Based Rough Set Machine,'' Proceedings of the
Milano, Italy, September 1999.
- [Luce57] R.D. Luce and H. Raiffa,
``Games and Decisions,'' John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1957.
J. Maynard Smith, and G.R. Price,
``The Logic of Animal Conflict'', Nature, 246, pp. 15-18, 1984.
R.S. Michalski and J.B. Larson, ``Inductive inference
of vl decision rules,'' in Workshop in Pattern-Directed Inference
Systems, Hawaii, May 1977.
R.S. Michalski, I. Bratko, and M. Kubat,
``Machine Learning and Data Mining: Methods and Applications,''
Wiley and Sons, 1998.
D. Michie, ``Machine Learning in the next five years,''
Proc. EWSL'88, 3rd European Working Session on Learning,
Glasgow, Pitman, London, 1988.
- [Minsky86] M. Minsky, ``The Society of Mind,'' Simon and Schuster, New York, 1986.
- [Moravec] Moravec, ``his recent book,'' 1999.
- [Mishchenko00] A. Mishchenko, ``A Breakthrough in Problem Representation:
Implicit Methods for Logic Synthesis, Test and Verification,'' this proceedings.
- [Pawlak91] Z. Pawlak, ``Rough Sets. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Data,''
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.
``Systolic Architecture for the Logic Design Machine,''
Proc. of the IEEE and ACM International Conference on Computer Aided Design -
ICCAD'85, pp. 133 - 135, Santa Clara, 19 - 21 November 1985.
M.A. Perkowski, ``A Universal Logic Machine,''
invited address, Proc. of the 22nd IEEE
International Symposium on Multiple Valued Logic, ISMVL'92,
pp. 262 - 271, Sendai, Japan, May 27-29, 1992.
M. Perkowski, M. Marek-Sadowska, L. Jozwiak, T. Luba,
S. Grygiel, M. Nowicka, R. Malvi, Z. Wang, and J. S. Zhang,
``Decomposition of Multiple-Valued Relations,'' Proc. ISMVL'97,
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, May 1997, pp. 13 - 18.
M. A. Perkowski, L. Jozwiak, and D. Foote, "Architecture of a Programmable
FPGA Coprocessor for Constructive Induction Approach to Machine Learning
and other Discrete Optimization Problems",
in Reiner W. Hartenstein and Victor K. Prasanna (ed)
``Reconfigurable Architectures. High Performance by Configware,''
IT Press Verlag, Bruchsal, Germany, 1997, pp. 33 - 40.
M. Perkowski, ``Do It Yourself Reconfigurable Supercomputer that Learns,''
book preprint, Portland, Oregon, 1999.
- [Perkowski99a] M. Perkowski, S. Grygiel, Q. Chen, and D. Mattson,
``Constructive Induction Machines for Data Mining,''
Proc. Conference on Intelligent Electronics,
Sendai, Japan, 14-19 March, 1999.
Slides in Postscript.
M. Perkowski, R. Malvi, S. Grygiel, M. Burns, and A. Mishchenko,
``Graph Coloring Algorithms for Fast Evaluation of Curtis Decompositions,''
Proc. DAC'99, June 21-23 1999. (DAC
99). New Orleans, LA, USA, June 21-25, 1999. PowerPoint
M.A. Perkowski, A.N. Chebotarev, and A.A. Mishchenko,
Hardware or Learning Hardware? Induction of State Machines from Temporal
The First NASA/DOD Workshop on Evolvable Hardware
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA, July 19-21, 1999.
PSU POLO Directory with DM/ML Benchmarks, software and papers:
D. Popel, S. Yanushkevich, M. Perkowski, P. Dziurzanski, V. Shmerko,
``Information Theoretic Approach to Minimization of Arithmetic Expressions, '' this proceedings.
Robot Museum Theatre,
- [Rowe88] N.C. Rowe,
``Artificial Intelligence Through Prolog,'' Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1988.
K.B. Stanton, P.R. Sherman, M.L. Rohwedder, Ch.P. Fleskes, D. Gray, D.T.
Minh, C. Espinosa, D. Mayi, M. Ishaque, M.A. Perkowski,
``PSUBOT - A Voice-Controlled Wheelchair for the Handicapped,''
Proc. of the 33rd Midwest Symp. on Circuits and Systems,
pp. 669 - 672, Alberta, Canada, August 1990.
- [Steinbach99] B. Steinbach, M. Perkowski, and Ch. Lang,
``Bi-Decomposition in Multi-Valued Logic for Data Mining,''
Proc. ISMVL'99, May, 1999.
- [Turing53] A. Turing, ``Computing Machinery and Intelligence,'' Mind, LIX (236), 1953.
- [Ullanta00] Ullanta Performance Robotics,
J. Vuillemin, P. Bertin, D. Roncin, M. Shand, H. Touati,
and Ph. Boucard, ``Programmable Active Memories: Reconfigurable Systems
Come of Age,'' IEEE Trans. on VLSI Systems,
Vol. 4, No. 1., pp. 56-69, March 1996
- [Warrick80] P. Warrick, ``The Cybernetic
Imagination in Science Fiction,'' Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980.
- [Wright99] R. Wright, ``Non-Zero: The Logic of Human Destiny,''
Pantheon Books, 1999.
- [Zwick00] M. Zwick, ``Reconstructurability Analysis Approach to Data Mining,'' this proceedings.
the Genetic Algorithm methods as described in [Miller99].