- Overview
- Scalars
- Creating
- Assigning values
- Scalar operations

- Vectors
- Creating
- Assigning values
- Addressing individual elements
- Colon notation
- Vector operations

- Matrices
- creating
- assigning values
- addressing individual elements
- colon notation
- matrix operations

- Strings
- creating
- assigning values
- addressing individual elements
- colon notation
- string operations

MATLAB variables are created when they appear on the left of an equal sign. The generic statement

>> variable = expressioncreates the ``variable'' and assigns to it the value of the expression on the right hand side. You do not need to define or declare a variable before it is used. Matrices do not need to explicitly dimensioned, and MATLAB allows you to increase the size of a matrix as you work.

Advanced MATLAB users will point out that the speed of MATLAB functions can be increased by pre-allocating memory for matrices and vectors. This and other performance considerations are discussed elsewhere.

Variable names must begin with an alphanumeric letter. Following
that, any number of letters, digits and underscores can be
added, but only the first 19 characters are retained. MATLAB
variable names are case sensitive so `x` and `X`
are different variables.

**All** numerical variables in MATLAB are matrices, a mathematical
data type corresponding to a two-dimensional array of numbers.
Before performing any calculations with a numeric variable, MATLAB
prods and pokes into its contents. MATLAB is very careful to follow
the rigorous rules of linear algebra, and it only allows legal
operations between matrices, vectors and scalars.

But what about the statement that ``all numerical variables in MATLAB are matrices''?

MATLAB keeps track of the dimension of each variable. Thus, the statement

>> x = 2creates a scalar variable

A vector is a matrix with only one row or only one column. **The
distinction between row and column vectors is crucial.**
When working with MATLAB you will need to understand how
to properly perform linear algebra using scalars, vectors
and matrices. MATLAB enforces rules on the use of each of these
variables

MATLAB variables may also be strings, which are matrices of
individual characters. There is no typographical difference in
appearance between numerical variables and string variables.
For example, the following statements assign a numerical value
to `x` and a string value to `y`.

>> x = 5.2 >> y = 'Bob'The type of variable (numerical or string) is determined when the variable is created.

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